The Direction-seeing Crow.
Saŋyojana, Saññojana, Saṃyojanā, Samyojanā
Gemstones of the Good Dhamma by Ven. Click here for all 21 books. As she was loved by all beings sh He was present at the birth celebration of Arjuna. Destroying the traces of the conflicting emotions] I. Item last updated: 02 July, Like what you read? Consider supporting this website:. Donate on Patreon. Far enemy is the opposite quality.
The faculties and powers are two aspects of the same thing. Note: The first 3 fetters are cognitive understanding , the next 2 are affective emotional , the last 5 are Transcendent. Toggle navigation Insight Meditation Center. Neither the Stream - enterer nor the Once - returner has completely given up sensual desire.
In both of them there is still a remnant of satisfaction in alluring and desirable objects. Even though they have managed to give up self belief, doubt and superstition, they are still unable to relinquish completely their attachment to sensuality of which some traces remain. But an Aryian at the third stage, a Never - returner, has succeeded in giving it up completely, so that not a trace remains. The defilement called ill will, which includes all feelings of anger or resentment, has been washed out to a large extent by the Once - returner so that there remains only a trace of ill humor to obstruct his mind; but the Never - returner has got rid of it altogether.
Thus the Never - returner has thrown off both sensual desire and ill will. This sensual desire or attachment to and satisfaction in sensuality was explained adequately in the section on sensual attachment. It is a chronic defilement, firmly fixed in the mind as if it were a very part of it, of the same substance.
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For the ordinary man, it is hard to understand and hard to eradicate. Anything at all can serve as an object for desire: colors and shapes, sounds, odors, tastes and tactile objects of any sort, kind and description. These are sensual objects Kama , and the state of mental attachment which takes the form of satisfaction in these desirable objects is sensual desire Kama - raga.
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What we call ill will is the reaction of a mind that feels dissatisfaction. If there is satisfaction, there is sensual desire; if dissatisfaction, ill will. Most people's minds are subject to these two states. There may arise ill will towards even inanimate objects, and what is more, one can even be dissatisfied with the things one has produced oneself, the things that arise in one's own mind. Where there is actual hatred and anger towards an object, ill will has become too fierce. An Aryian at a stage below the Non - returnee has given it up to a degree appropriate to his station.
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The ill will that remains for the third grade of Aryian to relinquish is just a mental reaction so subtle that possibly no outward evidence of it appears. It is an inner perturbation not revealed by any facial expression, yet present inwardly as dissatisfaction, as irritation or annoyance at some person or thing that does not conform to expectation. Imagine a person completely devoid of every form of ill will: consider what a very exceptional individual he would be, and how worthy of respect.
The five defilements we have just been discussing were grouped together by the Buddha as the first to be given up. Self belief, doubt, superstition, sensual desire and ill will have all been given up by an Aryian at the third level. Because there remains no sensual desire, this grade of Aryian never again returns to the sensual state of existence. This is why he gets the name "Never - returner," one who will never come back. For him there is only movement forward and upward to Arahantship and Nirvana, in a state having nothing to do with sensuality, a supreme, divine condition.
As for the five remaining defilements, these only the Arahant, the fourth grade of Aryian, succeeds in relinquishing completely. The next defilement, the sixth of the fetters, is desire for the bliss associated with the various stages of concentration on forms rupa - raga. The first three grades of Aryian are still not capable of giving up attachment to the bliss and tranquillity obtainable by concentrating deeply on forms, but they will succeed in doing so when they move up to the last stage, that of the Arahant.
The fully concentrated state has a captivating flavor, which can be described as a foretaste of Nirvana. Though it differs from real Nirvana, it has more or less the same flavor.
While one is fully concentrated, the defilements are dormant; but they have not evaporated away entirely, and will reappear as soon as concentration is lost. As long as they are dormant, however, the mind is empty, clear, free, and knows the flavor of real Nirvana. Consequently this state can also become a cause of attachment. The seventh subtle defilement is desire for the bliss associated with full concentration on objects other than forms arupa - raga. It resembles the sixth fetter, but is one degree more subtle and attenuated. Concentration on an object such as space or emptiness yields a tranquillity and quiescence more profound than concentration on a form, with the result that one becomes attached to that state.
No Arahant could ever become fascinated by any state of pleasant feeling whatsoever, regardless of where it originated, because an Arahant is automatically aware of the impermanence, unsatisfactoriness and nonselfhood of every state of feeling. Other hermits and mystics practicing concentration in the forest do not perceive the hidden danger in these blissful states and so become fascinated by and attached to the flavor of them just as immature people become attached to the flavor of sensual objects. For this reason the Buddha used the same word "desire" for both cases.
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If you think this subject over and really come to understand it, you will be full of admiration and respect for these individuals called Aryians. The eighth fetter binding a man to the world is awareness of superiority or inferiority mana. It is the delusion of having this or that status relative to another. It consists in the thought: "I am not as good as he is. I am just as good as he is. I am better or higher than he is. It is not pride or conceit. Not to think automatically of oneself as better or worse than the other fellow in this fashion is bound to be very difficult.
The placing of this defilement as number eight is probably meant to indicate that it is hard to give up and so belongs near the end of the list. Only the highest grade of Aryian can relinquish it. The likes of us naturally can't give it up. This idea that one is better than, or on a par with, or not as good as the other fellow, comes from a certain kind of attachment.
As long as the mind is still involved in good and bad, the awareness of inferiority, superiority, or equality with respect to others remains to disturb it; but when it has completely transcended good and bad, such ideas cannot exist. As long as such ideas do remain, real bliss and tranquillity are lacking. The ninth fetter is Agitation Uddhacca , that is, mental unrest, distraction, lack of peace and quiet.
This is the feeling of agitation that arises when something interesting comes by. We all have certain chronic wishes, particularly a desire to get, to be, not to get, or not to be, one thing or another. When something comes by, via the eye, ear, nose, tongue, or body, which fits in with one of our tendencies, there is likely to come about the mental reaction, pro or con, which we call interest.
If we see something new and strange, wavering and curiosity are bound to arise, because there are still things that we want and things that we fear and mistrust. So the mind cannot resist, it has to be interested in the various things that come by- at least that is how it is with an ordinary person. If the object in question happens to coincide with a desire of his, he finds it hard to resist.
He is likely to become interested to the point of becoming involved, pleased to the point of forgetting himself. If it is an undesirable object, the mind becomes depressed so that his gratification comes to an end. This is the nature of Agitation. The first three grades of Aryian still have curiosity and inquisitiveness about things, but the Arahant has none at all.
His mind has abolished all desire for anything whatsoever: it has abolished fear and hatred, worry and anxiety, mistrust and doubt, and all desire to know about and see things. His mind is free.
Nothing can provoke or lure him, and arouse inquisitiveness or curiosity, simply because he has abolished partiality.