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Drawing together early modern literature and linguistics, Crawforth argues that the history of English as it was studied in the period radically underpins the writing of its greatest poets.


  • Etymology and the Invention of English in Early Modern Literature by Hannah Crawforth.
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She has published articles in a range of journals and edited collections, and is textual editor for the Norton Shakespeare's new edition of The Two Noble Kinsmen. Table of Contents Preface; Introduction: etymology in early modern literature; 1. Etymology and estrangement in the poems of Edmund Spenser; 2. Etymology and textual time in the masques of Ben Jonson; 3. Etymology and place in Donne's sermons; 4. Etymology and the ends of idealism in Milton's prose; Conclusion: a world in a word; Bibliography.

Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Bibliography of English Language and Literature Originally published in as the first of an annually updated series encompassing various countries, Originally published in as the first of an annually updated series encompassing various countries, this book was compiled by the Modern Humanities Research Association in order to provide scholars with a bibliography of works on English language and literature View Product.

Early Modern English Literature and the Poetics of. The Cartographic Revolution in the Renaissance made maps newly precise, newly affordable, and newly ubiquitous.

A profusion of words

In sixteenth-century Britain, cartographic materials went from rarity to household decor within a single lifetime, and they delighted, inspired, and fascinated people across the socioeconomic English Literature: Modern. In he got a job as leader writer, drama critic and special correspondent on the Manchester Guardian, and was appointed political Excess and the Mean in Early Modern English.

This book examines how English writers from the Elizabethan period to the Restoration transformed and This book examines how English writers from the Elizabethan period to the Restoration transformed and contested the ancient ideal of the virtuous mean. As early modern authors learned at grammar school and university, Aristotle and other classical thinkers praised golden Broadening the notion of censorship, this volume explores the transformative role played by early modern Broadening the notion of censorship, this volume explores the transformative role played by early modern censors in the fashioning of a distinct English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

In early modern England, the Privy Council, the Bishop of For most readers and spectators, heroism takes the form of public, idealized masculinity. Modern English can be taken to have emerged fully by the beginning of the Georgian era in , but English orthography remained somewhat fluid until the publication of Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language , in The towering importance of William Shakespeare over the other Elizabethan authors was the result of his reception during the 17th and the 18th centuries, which directly contributes to the development of Standard English.

The orthography of Early Modern English was fairly similar to that of today, but spelling was unstable. Early Modern English spelling was similar to that of Middle English. Early Modern English orthography had a number of features of spelling that have not been retained:. Many spellings had still not been standardised, however.

For example, he was spelled as both he and hee in the same sentence in Shakespeare's plays and elsewhere. Most consonant sounds of Early Modern English have survived into present-day English; however, there are still a few notable differences in pronunciation:. The following information primarily comes from studies of the Great Vowel Shift ; [15] [16] see the related chart.

Early Modern English had two second-person personal pronouns: thou , the informal singular pronoun, and ye , the plural both formal and informal pronoun and the formal singular pronoun. In many churches in the United Kingdom and the United States, primarily those that use the King James Bible, "thou" is still used to address God in prayer and is felt to denote reverence. It was not to denote reverence in the King James Bible, God addresses individual people and even Satan as "thou" but only to denote the singular.

Over the centuries, however, the very fact that "thou" was dropping out of normal use gave it a special aura and so it gradually came to be used to express reverence in hymns and in prayers. Like other personal pronouns, thou and ye have different forms dependent on their grammatical case ; specifically, the objective form of thou is thee , its possessive forms are thy and thine , and its reflexive or emphatic form is thyself. The objective form of ye was you , its possessive forms are your and yours and its reflexive or emphatic forms are yourself and yourselves.

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Literature

The older forms "mine" and "thine" had become "my" and "thy" before words beginning with a consonant other than h , and "mine" and "thine" were retained before words beginning with a vowel or an h , as in mine eyes or thine hand. During the Early Modern period, the verb inflections became simplified as they evolved towards their modern forms:.

The modal auxiliaries cemented their distinctive syntactical characteristics during the Early Modern period. Thus, the use of modals without an infinitive became rare as in "I must to Coventry"; "I'll none of that".

A short history of the English language | Linguaenglish blog

Some verbs ceased to function as modals during the Early Modern period. The present form of must , mot , became obsolete. Dare also lost the syntactical characteristics of a modal auxiliary and evolved a new past form dared , distinct from the modal durst. The perfect of the verbs had not yet been standardised to use only the auxiliary verb "to have". Some took as their auxiliary verb "to be", such as this example from the King James Bible: "But which of you The rules for the auxiliaries for different verbs were similar to those that are still observed in German and French see unaccusative verb.

History of English (combined)

The modern syntax used for the progressive aspect "I am walking" became dominant by the end of the Early Modern period, but other forms were also common such as the prefix a- "I am a-walking" and the infinitive paired with "do" "I do walk". A number of words that are still in common use in Modern English have undergone semantic narrowing.

The use of the verb " to suffer " in the sense of "to allow" survived into Early Modern English, as in the phrase "suffer the little children" of the King James Bible, but it has mostly been lost in Modern English. Also, this period reveals a curious case of one of the earliest Russian borrowings to English which is historically a rare occasion itself [31] ; at least as early as , the word " steppe " rus. It is believed that this is a possible indirect borrowing via either German or French. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the stage of the language. For the historical period, see Early Modern Britain.

For the media company, see Tickle. William Shakespeare 's Sonnet in the Quarto. Language family.


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    Introduction

    Further information: Tudor period and English Renaissance. See also: Chronology of Shakespeare's plays and Shakespeare's influence. Further information: Elizabethan literature and Elizabethan theatre. Further information: Jacobean era. Further information: Caroline era and English Civil War.

    Main article: Modern English. All four forms are used as possessive adjectives: mine and thine are used before nouns beginning in a vowel sound, or before nouns beginning in the letter h , which was usually silent e.